Water Treatment Facilities

Clean water is the key to maintaining any civilization.  John Snow is credited with linking a cholera epidemic to contaminated drinking water in 1855.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diarrheal diseases (such as cholera) kill more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, making diarrheal disease the second leading cause Continue Reading

Vaccinating the Un-Vaccinatable

Imagine a story. Earth’s population faces extinction from a predator that takes no prisoners. Every fortress invaded; the population dies… to the last individual. No survivors, no mercy, and no solution. Then an outsider steps forth from obscurity with a gift providing hope. Sounds like a great novel doesn’t it? In some ways, the story Continue Reading

Ask Yourself This Question Before You Go Into a Pool

“Would you bathe with these people?” “Would you bathe with these people?” That is what you are doing. You are about to jump into chlorinated bathwater used by the people you see before you and those who came earlier. What do people do after they get out of a pool? Usually, shower off. For everyone’s Continue Reading

Forget Goat Tanning Beds, Consider St. John’s Wort

While many people take St. John’s Wort as an herbal treatment for depression, the plant induces painful sunburns in goats when eaten. Sound crazy? Wondering if you heard that correctly? Yes, St. John Wort is a photodynamic plant. After eating, certain UV-light-absorbing compounds in the plant circulate in the blood of the goat. In white, Continue Reading

Karenia, Why Everyone Hates You

Does Karenia Mean "Pure Evil?" The name Karen comes from the Greek word for “pure.” Pure what though, can be interpreted. In the case of Karenia brevis, the purity of wanton destruction applies. Like other dinoflagellates, Karenia bears attributes of both plants and animals within a compact single-cell. In the 1800’s dinoflagellates were described as Continue Reading