Life and Death, the Cytokine Impact

Like the ancient Roman army, cytokines are a formidable force When facing Carthaginian forces on the field of battle, Roman infantry proved devastating and impactful. When loitering within their own city walls, the Roman infantry also proved devastating and impactful, quickly leading the rule that the army must remain well outside their own city. A Continue Reading

Cytokine Storms, Stronger than World War I and Kublai Khan

Kamikaze or "Divine Winds" twice saved Japan from the Mongolian Fleet Long before the current use of the word kamikaze, Japanese used “divine wind,” the name translation, in a literal sense. In the thirteenth century, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever seen sailed its formidable armada and all its might towards the shores Continue Reading

Duration of Immunity

The USDA recently announced a transition to Single Tier Label Claim for all veterinary biologics. Effective for all newly licensed vaccines, the decision retroactively applies to all currently licensed vaccines over the course of several years. This change promotes label clarity for both veterinarians and pet owners and reduces some of the competitive confusion between Continue Reading

Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of over 70 species of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed mammals.  From the OIE Technical Disease Cards, the early signs include “vesicles on the tongue, dental pad, buccal mucosa, cheeks, gums, hard and soft palate, nostrils, muzzle, feet, corium of dewclaws, interdigital spaces, or teats”.  Continue Reading

Equine Vaccinations

Horses are very susceptible to many vaccine preventable diseases.  Some of the more common ones are EEE/WEE/VEE, rabies, West Nile, and tetanus. These are considered “core” vaccinations for all horses.  Vaccination for other diseases, such as influenza, EHV 1 & 4, and strangles are based on risk.  Some horses have higher risk of exposure to Continue Reading