Why Do I Give Goats Sheep Vaccines?

Why oh why, would I give goats sheep vaccines? Seems counterintuitive right? We put horseshoes on horses, give cats cat food, and give goats… what? Another species’ vaccines? Are they getting shortchanged? The short answer is no, and the longer answer contains two reasons, one immunologic and the other administrative. When you become infected with […]

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West Nile Virus: From Introduction to Endemnicity

The weather around the globe continues its unpredictable pattern.  Many areas of the US are experiencing unusual flooding for this time of year.  With flood waters, come hordes of tiny vectors, harboring many infectious diseases. Among these, a few are zoonotic.  In 1999, a veterinarian at the Bronx Zoo in New York City noticed an […]

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Who is C. chauvoei?

Weaning will be upon us sooner than expected.  Are your calves ready?  Are they protected from blackleg? All breeds of calves are susceptible to blackleg, not just black ones.  Beef cattle have a slightly higher risk, do to heavier muscling.  Clostridium chauvoei causes an emphysematous swelling in muscles, affecting cattle and sheep.  Also referred to […]

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Eradication, Elimination, and Endemicity

Modern science has made some tremendous breakthroughs in the last century.  Diseases that used to plague livestock have now been brought under control or eradicated completely.  Only two infectious diseases can be considered completely eradicated: smallpox in humans in 1980, and rinderpest in ruminants in 2011.  When a disease occurs in a geographic region, animal […]

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I Just Don’t Give a Gram!

Gosh, Gram it! Why is it that every time I take a class or read an article that involves bacteria, there is an insistence on explaining whether it is gram-negative or gram-positive? Who cares? After all, you culture bacteria, perform an antibiotic sensitivity test, then prescribe the correct antibiotic. Done and done. No gram-nonsense involved […]

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Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of over 70 species of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed mammals.  From the OIE Technical Disease Cards, the early signs include “vesicles on the tongue, dental pad, buccal mucosa, cheeks, gums, hard and soft palate, nostrils, muzzle, feet, corium of dewclaws, interdigital spaces, or teats”.  […]

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